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  • MongoDB 3.X 用户权限控制

    摘要:

          MongoDB 3.0 安全权限访问控制,在添加用户上面3.0版本和之前的版本有很大的区别,这里就说明下3.0的添加用户的方法。

    环境、测试:

          安装MongoDB之后,先关闭auth认证,进入查看数据库,只有一个local库,admin库是不存在的:

    root@zhoujinyi:/usr/local/mongo4# mongo --port=27020
    MongoDB shell version: 3.0.4
    connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27020/test
    2015-06-29T09:31:08.673-0400 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
    > show dbs;
    local  0.078GB

    现在需要创建一个帐号,该账号需要有grant权限,即:账号管理的授权权限。注意一点,帐号是跟着库走的,所以在指定库里授权,必须也在指定库里验证(auth)。

    复制代码
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    > use admin
    switched to db admin
    > db.createUser(
    ...   {
    ...     user: "dba",
    ...     pwd: "dba",
    ...     roles: [ { role: "userAdminAnyDatabase", db: "admin" } ]
    ...   }
    ... )
    Successfully added user: {
        "user" : "dba",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    复制代码
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    上面加粗的就是执行的命令:

    user:用户名

    pwd:密码

    roles:指定用户的角色,可以用一个空数组给新用户设定空角色;在roles字段,可以指定内置角色和用户定义的角色。role里的角色可以选:

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      Built-In Roles(内置角色):
        1. 数据库用户角色:read、readWrite;
        2. 数据库管理角色:dbAdmin、dbOwner、userAdmin;
        3. 集群管理角色:clusterAdmin、clusterManager、clusterMonitor、hostManager;
        4. 备份恢复角色:backup、restore5. 所有数据库角色:readAnyDatabase、readWriteAnyDatabase、userAdminAnyDatabase、dbAdminAnyDatabase
        6. 超级用户角色:root  
        // 这里还有几个角色间接或直接提供了系统超级用户的访问(dbOwner 、userAdmin、userAdminAnyDatabase)
        7. 内部角色:__system
    复制代码
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    具体角色: 

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    Read:允许用户读取指定数据库
    readWrite:允许用户读写指定数据库
    dbAdmin:允许用户在指定数据库中执行管理函数,如索引创建、删除,查看统计或访问system.profile
    userAdmin:允许用户向system.users集合写入,可以找指定数据库里创建、删除和管理用户
    clusterAdmin:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有分片和复制集相关函数的管理权限。
    readAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的读权限
    readWriteAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的读写权限
    userAdminAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的userAdmin权限
    dbAdminAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的dbAdmin权限。
    root:只在admin数据库中可用。超级账号,超级权限
    复制代码
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    刚建立了 userAdminAnyDatabase 角色,用来管理用户,可以通过这个角色来创建、删除用户。验证:需要开启auth参数。

    复制代码
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    root@zhoujinyi:/usr/local/mongo4# mongo --port=27020
    MongoDB shell version: 3.0.4
    connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27020/test
    > show dbs;    ####没有验证,导致没权限。
    2015-06-29T10:02:16.634-0400 E QUERY    Error: listDatabases failed:{
        "ok" : 0,
        "errmsg" : "not authorized on admin to execute command { listDatabases: 1.0 }",
        "code" : 13
    }
        at Error (<anonymous>)
        at Mongo.getDBs (src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47:15)
        at shellHelper.show (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:630:33)
        at shellHelper (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:524:36)
        at (shellhelp2):1:1 at src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47
    > use admin        #验证,因为在admin下面添加的帐号,所以要到admin下面验证。
    switched to db admin
    > db.auth('dba','dba')
    1
    > show dbs;
    admin  0.078GB
    local  0.078GB
    > use test        #在test库里创建帐号
    switched to db test
    > db.createUser(
    ...     {
    ...       user: "zjyr",
    ...       pwd: "zjyr",
    ...       roles: [
    ...          { role: "read", db: "test" }    #只读帐号
    ...       ]
    ...     }
    ... )
    Successfully added user: {
        "user" : "zjyr",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "read",
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    > db.createUser(
    ...     {
    ...       user: "zjy",
    ...       pwd: "zjy",
    ...       roles: [
    ...          { role: "readWrite", db: "test" }   #读写帐号
    ...       ]
    ...     }
    ... )
    Successfully added user: {
        "user" : "zjy",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",                #读写账号
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    > show users;                                    #查看当前库下的用户
    {
        "_id" : "test.zjyr",
        "user" : "zjyr",
        "db" : "test",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "read",
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "test.zjy",
        "user" : "zjy",
        "db" : "test",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    复制代码
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    上面创建了2个帐号,现在验证下:验证前提需要一个集合

    复制代码
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    > db.abc.insert({"a":1,"b":2})              #插入失败,没有权限,userAdminAnyDatabase 权限只是针对用户管理的,对其他是没有权限的。
    WriteResult({
        "writeError" : {
            "code" : 13,
            "errmsg" : "not authorized on test to execute command { insert: "abc", documents: [ { _id: ObjectId('55915185d629831d887ce2cb'), a: 1.0, b: 2.0 } ], ordered: true }"
        }
    })
    > 
    bye
    root@zhoujinyi:/usr/local/mongo4# mongo --port=27020
    MongoDB shell version: 3.0.4
    connecting to: 127.0.0.1:27020/test
    > use test
    switched to db test
    > db.auth('zjy','zjy')       #用创建的readWrite帐号进行写入
    1
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1,"b":2})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > db.abc.insert({"a":11,"b":22})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > db.abc.insert({"a":111,"b":222})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > db.abc.find()
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151a1b78649ebd8316853"), "a" : 1, "b" : 2 }
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151cab78649ebd8316854"), "a" : 11, "b" : 22 }
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151ceb78649ebd8316855"), "a" : 111, "b" : 222 }
    > db.auth('zjyr','zjyr')       #切换到只有read权限的帐号
    1
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1111,"b":2222})  #不能写入
    WriteResult({
        "writeError" : {
            "code" : 13,
            "errmsg" : "not authorized on test to execute command { insert: "abc", documents: [ { _id: ObjectId('559151ebb78649ebd8316856'), a: 1111.0, b: 2222.0 } ], ordered: true }"
        }
    })
    > db.abc.find()        #可以查看
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151a1b78649ebd8316853"), "a" : 1, "b" : 2 }
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151cab78649ebd8316854"), "a" : 11, "b" : 22 }
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559151ceb78649ebd8316855"), "a" : 111, "b" : 222 }
    复制代码
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    有没有一个超级权限?不仅可以授权,而且也可以对集合进行任意操作?答案是肯定的,只是不建议使用。那就是role角色设置成root

    复制代码
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    > db.auth('dba','dba')
    1
    > db.createUser(
    ...  {
    ...    user: "zhoujinyi",
    ...    pwd: "zhoujinyi",
    ...    roles: [
    ...       { role: "root", db: "admin" }      #超级root帐号
    ...    ]
    ...  }
    ... )
    Successfully added user: {
        "user" : "zhoujinyi",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "root",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    > 
    > show users;              #查看当前库下的用户
    {
        "_id" : "admin.dba",
        "user" : "dba",
        "db" : "admin",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "admin.zhoujinyi",
        "user" : "zhoujinyi",
        "db" : "admin",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "root",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    > use admin
    switched to db admin
    > db.auth('zhoujinyi','zhoujinyi')
    1
    > use test
    switched to db test
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1,"b":2})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1111,"b":2222})          #权限都有
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > db.abc.find()
    { "_id" : ObjectId("5591539bb78649ebd8316857"), "a" : 1, "b" : 2 }
    { "_id" : ObjectId("559153a0b78649ebd8316858"), "a" : 1111, "b" : 2222 }
    > db.abc.remove({})
    WriteResult({ "nRemoved" : 2 })
    复制代码
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    因为帐号都是在当前需要授权的数据库下授权的,那要是不在当前数据库下会怎么样?

    复制代码
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    > db
    admin
    > db.createUser(
    ...  {
    ...    user: "dxy",
    ...    pwd: "dxy",
    ...    roles: [
    ...       { role: "readWrite", db: "test" },     #在当前库下创建其他库的帐号,在admin库下创建test、abc库的帐号
    ...       { role: "readWrite", db: "abc" }         
    ...    ]
    ...  }
    ... )
    Successfully added user: {
        "user" : "dxy",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "test"
            },
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "abc"
            }
        ]
    }
    > 
    > show users;
    {
        "_id" : "admin.dba",
        "user" : "dba",
        "db" : "admin",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "admin.zhoujinyi",
        "user" : "zhoujinyi",
        "db" : "admin",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "root",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "admin.dxy",
        "user" : "dxy",
        "db" : "admin",
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "test"
            },
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "abc"
            }
        ]
    }
    > use test
    switched to db test
    > db.auth('dxy','dxy')          #在admin下创建的帐号,不能直接在其他库验证,
    Error: 18 Authentication failed.
    0
    > use admin
    switched to db admin            #只能在帐号创建库下认证,再去其他库进行操作。
    > db.auth('dxy','dxy')
    1
    > use test
    switched to db test
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1111,"b":2222})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    > use abc
    switched to db abc
    > db.abc.insert({"a":1111,"b":2222})
    WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
    复制代码
    复制代码

    上面更加进一步说明数据库帐号是跟着数据库来走的,哪里创建哪里认证。

    创建了这么多帐号,怎么查看所有帐号

    复制代码
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    >  use admin
    switched to db admin
    > db.auth('dba','dba')
    1
    > db.system.users.find().pretty()
    {
        "_id" : "admin.dba",
        "user" : "dba",
        "db" : "admin",
        "credentials" : {
            "SCRAM-SHA-1" : {
                "iterationCount" : 10000,
                "salt" : "KfDUzCOIUo7WVjFr64ZOcQ==",
                "storedKey" : "t4sPsKG2dXnZztVYj5EgdUzT9sc=",
                "serverKey" : "2vCGiq9NIc1zKqeEL6VvO4rP26A="
            }
        },
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "test.zjyr",
        "user" : "zjyr",
        "db" : "test",
        "credentials" : {
            "SCRAM-SHA-1" : {
                "iterationCount" : 10000,
                "salt" : "h1gOW3J7wzJuTqgmmQgJKQ==",
                "storedKey" : "7lkoANdxM2py0qiDBzFaZYPp1cM=",
                "serverKey" : "Qyu6IRNyaKLUvqJ2CAa/tQYY36c="
            }
        },
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "read",
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "test.zjy",
        "user" : "zjy",
        "db" : "test",
        "credentials" : {
            "SCRAM-SHA-1" : {
                "iterationCount" : 10000,
                "salt" : "afwaKuTYPWwbDBduQ4Hm7g==",
                "storedKey" : "ebb2LYLn4hiOVlZqgrAKBdStfn8=",
                "serverKey" : "LG2qWwuuV+FNMmr9lWs+Rb3DIhQ="
            }
        },
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "test"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "admin.zhoujinyi",
        "user" : "zhoujinyi",
        "db" : "admin",
        "credentials" : {
            "SCRAM-SHA-1" : {
                "iterationCount" : 10000,
                "salt" : "pE2cSOYtBOYevk8tqrwbSQ==",
                "storedKey" : "TwMxdnlB5Eiaqg4tNh9ByNuUp9A=",
                "serverKey" : "Mofr9ohVlFfR6/md4LMRkOhXouc="
            }
        },
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "root",
                "db" : "admin"
            }
        ]
    }
    {
        "_id" : "admin.dxy",
        "user" : "dxy",
        "db" : "admin",
        "credentials" : {
            "SCRAM-SHA-1" : {
                "iterationCount" : 10000,
                "salt" : "XD6smcWX4tdg/ZJPoLxxRg==",
                "storedKey" : "F4uiayykHDp/r9krAKZjdr+gqjM=",
                "serverKey" : "Kf51IU9J3RIrB8CFn5Z5hEKMSkw="
            }
        },
        "roles" : [
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "test"
            },
            {
                "role" : "readWrite",
                "db" : "abc"
            }
        ]
    }
    > db.system.users.find().count()
    5
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    备份还原使用那个角色的帐号?之前创建的帐号zjy:test库读写权限;zjyr:test库读权限

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    root@zhoujinyi:~# mongodump --port=27020 -uzjyr -pzjyr --db=test -o backup   #只要读权限就可以备份
    2015-06-29T11:20:04.864-0400    writing test.abc to backup/test/abc.bson
    2015-06-29T11:20:04.865-0400    writing test.abc metadata to backup/test/abc.metadata.json
    2015-06-29T11:20:04.866-0400    done dumping test.abc
    2015-06-29T11:20:04.867-0400    writing test.system.indexes to backup/test/system.indexes.bson
    
    
    root@zhoujinyi:~# mongorestore --port=27020 -uzjy -pzjy --db=test backup/test/  #读写权限可以进行还原
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.607-0400    building a list of collections to restore from backup/test/ dir
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.609-0400    reading metadata file from backup/test/abc.metadata.json
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.609-0400    restoring test.abc from file backup/test/abc.bson
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.611-0400    error: E11000 duplicate key error index: test.abc.$_id_ dup key: { : ObjectId('559154efb78649ebd831685a') }
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.611-0400    restoring indexes for collection test.abc from metadata
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.612-0400    finished restoring test.abc
    2015-06-29T11:20:26.612-0400    done

    https://www.cnblogs.com/shiyiwen/p/5552750.html
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  • 原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/seasonzone/p/9359501.html
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