• java synchronized修饰普通方法,修饰静态方法,修饰代码块,修饰线程run方法 比较


    synchronized用于多线程设计,有了synchronized关键字,多线程程序的运行结果将变得可以控制。synchronized关键字用于保护共享数据。

    synchronized实现同步的机制:synchronized依靠"锁"机制进行多线程同步,"锁"有2种,一种是对象锁,一种是类锁

    • 1.依靠对象锁锁定

    初始化一个对象时,自动有一个对象锁。synchronized {普通方法}依靠对象锁工作,多线程访问synchronized方法,一旦某个进程抢得锁之后,其他的进程只有排队对待。


    synchronized {普通方法}依靠对象锁工作,多线程访问synchronized方法,一旦某个进程抢得锁之后,其他的进程只有排队对待。
     
    synchronized void method{}功能上,等效于
    void method{
       synchronized(this) {
        ...
       }
    }
    通过代码看比较清楚:
    public class TestSynchronized {
        public synchronized void method1() throws InterruptedException {
            System.out.println("method1 begin at:" + System.currentTimeMillis());
            Thread.sleep(6000);
            System.out.println("method1 end at:" + System.currentTimeMillis());
        }
        public synchronized void method2() throws InterruptedException {
            while(true) {
                System.out.println("method2 running");
                Thread.sleep(200);
            }
        }
        static TestSychronized instance = new TestSychronized();
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Thread thread1 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        instance.method1();
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    for(int i=1; i<4; i++) {
                        try {
                            Thread.sleep(200);
                        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                        System.out.println("Thread1 still alive");
                    }                    
                }
            });
            
            Thread thread2 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        instance.method2();
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            });
            
            thread1.start();
            thread2.start();    
            
        }
    }

    运行结果:thread2一直等到thread1中的method1执行完了之后才执行method2,说明method1和method2互斥

    method1 begin at:1381584063557
    method1 end at:1381584069557
    method2 running
    method2 running
    Thread1 still alive
    method2 running
    Thread1 still alive
    method2 running
    Thread1 still alive
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running
    method2 running

     

     
    synchronized {修饰代码块}的作用不仅于此,synchronized void method{}整个函数加上synchronized块,效率并不好。在函数内部,可能我们需要同步的只是小部分共享数据,其他数据,可以自由访问,这时候我们可以用 synchronized(表达式){//语句}更加精确的控制
    • 2.synchronized {static方法}此代码块等效于
    void method{
       synchronized(Obl.class)
       }
    }
    使用该类的类对象的锁定去做线程的共享互斥.
    package com.free4lab.lol;
    
    public class TestSychronized {
        public synchronized static void method1() throws InterruptedException {
            System.out.println("method1 begin at:" + System.currentTimeMillis());
            Thread.sleep(6000);
            System.out.println("method1 end at:" + System.currentTimeMillis());
        }
        public synchronized static void method2() throws InterruptedException {
            while(true) {
                System.out.println("method2 running");
                Thread.sleep(200);
            }
        }
        static TestSychronized instance1 = new TestSychronized();
        static TestSychronized instance2 = new TestSychronized();
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Thread thread1 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        instance1.method1();
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    for(int i=1; i<4; i++) {
                        try {
                            Thread.sleep(200);
                        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                        System.out.println("Thread1 still alive");
                    }                    
                }
            });
            
            Thread thread2 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        instance2.method2();
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            });
            
            thread1.start();
            thread2.start();    
            
        }
    }

    输出效果也是method1和method2互斥

     
    • 3.synchronized {run方法}run方法的锁定.
    这个举例比较好说。
    package com.free4lab.lol;
    
    public class TestSychronized {
        static TestSychronized instance = new TestSychronized();
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Thread thread1 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                    public synchronized void run() {
                        
                        for(int i=1; i<4; i++) {
                            try {
                                Thread.sleep(200);
                            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                                e.printStackTrace();
                            }
                            System.out.println("Thread1 still alive, " + i);
                        }                    
                    }
            });
            new Thread(thread1).start();
            new Thread(thread1).start();
        }
    }

    如果加了synchronized当前线程取完所有数据后,才会释放锁,输出结果是有序的:

    Thread1 still alive, 1
    Thread1 still alive, 2
    Thread1 still alive, 3
    Thread1 still alive, 1
    Thread1 still alive, 2
    Thread1 still alive, 3
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  • 原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/yanghuahui/p/3365922.html
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